Postcolonial Europe

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size
English (United Kingdom)Svenska (Sverige)Polish (Poland)Russian (CIS)Ukrainian (Ukraine)

Appearance and Essence in History. According to The "Last Novel" by Teodor Parnicki.

Print
Stefan Szymutko

Regardless of whether we are dealing with expansionism and exploitation (as in colonialism), or with overcoming their effects (as in postcolonialism), that is with the task of rebuilding of identity, it is politics that decides about culture. We abandoned long ago any illusions, if we ever had them (the philosophers of the Greek polis did not), that thought rules over itself. In the 19th century, Hegel proved that the modern state and its culture are a single entity, and in the 20th. Foucault states even more sharply, that governance (power) is the creator of knowledge. Therefore, there are no problems separate from life, and no writing beyond politics. The most abstract ideas are formulated within the most real of realities, and never without connection to it, even when thinking apparently takes its own course.  The difficult, elitist work of the Polish novelist Teodor Parnicki (1908-1988) affirms such a dependence, and the present essay will attempt to address this notion.
The opposition between appearance and essence keeps appearing in our speech so often that we would probably not be able to express anything without it. In reducing the unknown to the known, identifying persons and things, we inevitably have to generalise in order to explain the particular, presuppose some kind of existence of the universal. Moreover, the existence of the general is more certain than the existence of unstable, transient instances. We think about the phenomenality of life, because phenomena are exceptional, unique - life precludes repetition (nothing repeats itself), whereas repeatability belongs to essence, so (in consequence) the existence of essence is unquestionable, while (simultaneously) we doubt the existence of history. Many things supposedly happen, something occurs constantly, but all of it is unstable, short-lived, fragile - it decays.
The intimation of history as permanent absence or even nothingness can be found already in Plato's Timaeus,[1] where one of his most famous thoughts - that time is a moving image of eternity - is included.[2] According to Plato, only eternity is, "[...] only that which truly is - is what properly belongs to it [Plato 1963, 1167], the rest, that is all that belongs to the past and the future, "is always becoming and never is"[3]. It is understandable then that we are interested more in the rule than in the individual instance, more in a notion than a given word; after all uniqueness is also not uniqueness (at least in language), but (like most words) a category, term, notion, name. Being occurs only singularly, but manifests itself universally, which satisfies us and undoubtedly appeals to us too, since Plato was also probably right in claiming that the eternal, immutable idea is fair and perfect (ideas are beautiful), while: "the created only uses a created pattern [...] is not fair and perfect" [Plato 1963, 1161]. As a result it would appear that ugliness is the effect of my singularity, and that life - to refer to the text of which everybody at least heard - will always remain beyond the pleasure principle.
One may become accustomed to this, yet it means that life is excluded from reflection, that it remains beyond thought. The generality threatens it with the loss of all meaning, although it is life which is the beginning of thinking and its only possible place. The schizophrenic split of man in culture, in which he cannot find himself when he abandons his uniqueness, tossing between the wish to cognise and the impossibility of recognising himself in the generalizations of culture - sinking in the mire of empty words, although we were supposed to speak to the point... about our own personal matters. Put in a more trivial form: I was supposed to read, but reading revolts me, I feel mental and emotional disgust, I would rather drink beer (for instance). Plato himself seems to doubt the possibility of knowing the idea, since he has "his" Parmenides say: "The result is that the hearer is perplexed"[4]. In our own times Austin will mockingly say that ideas are aunts without nephews [Austin 1993]. Knowledge of ideas is the knowledge that is too heavy, unbearable, inhuman. Structure as something invisible is enough[5]: it is something alien to common experience - one cannot see it, touch it, finger it, crush it...
The thinkers of the past half century knew that the price of knowledge is resignation, submission to the procedures which ignore uniqueness and singularity. Derrida uncompromisingly states that we do not fall into the traps of metaphysics, "only by conceiving difference outside the determination of Being as presence, outside the alternatives of presence and absence and everything they govern" [Derrida 1978, 333]. Which means - from our point of view - that the ground of difference, wherever it takes root, is not important. There is also nothing to represent, being is excluded from the circulation of words and is "outside representation itself"[6]. And suddenly speech lacks something painfully, immediately it turns out that it has to speak about something for which empty words hunger. Literature, art need reality, they cannot exist without it, even if there is no reality in words, there cannot be, which is the discreet, almost secret thought of Foucault's Order of Things[7]). The lack of something which cannot be expressed, the important emptiness of the real, which never stops influencing what is said is Derrida's extraordinary intuition:
Why this return to essentiality? Because, by definition, there is nothing to say about the unique? We will not rush toward this too solid commonplace here [Derrida 1978, 172][8].
Precisely: it would be precipitate to acknowledge that uniqueness, because it lacks conceptual clarity, means nothing. Life which enables meaning (the subsoil of difference) cannot not have meaning, although obviously not in the way language has it, but in spite of it. A disturbance, uneasiness, something that gets in the way of empty words, although it cannot be articulated. "A murmur [...] of things" [Foucault 1994, 119] which - as Foucault explains - "dissipates discourse, but without it could not speak"[9]. Singularity of things and persons, strange being of man - human flesh has a proper name[10].
Teodor Parnicki is a writer of the same epoch, a faithful, talented disciple of these thinkers as well as their original, creative continuator, the only writer known to me who genuinely adjusted the poetics of his works to the demands of modernity. He does not represent, because it is would not fit with this worldview - only a murmur of reality is heard in his novels, everything takes place behind a wall, as it were, and the reader encounters only echoes or reverberations of events, and even these are mostly distorted. Because of his approach, Parnicki has been accused of producing obscurity and nonsense, his writing has been classified as the literature of the absurd, whereas it is difficult to find in world literature writing that would be more sensible, more intellectually sober, distinguished by its disciplined, logical phrasing, and also by the intricacies of its multiple sentences in which one can lose one's way completely.
Uniqueness and singularity are the beginning of the difficulty; to be more precise: uniqueness and singularity are its cause, the reason for it. They are what it is so difficult to recognise in the generality of ideas, in which they lack meaning. For Parnicki, what is unquestionably the most important is singularity - of experiencing and understanding the world; it is this singularity that he tries to save in what is still left of representation. Let us spell it out: the impossible singularity, because it is difficult to present the problem in any other way. In The Last Novel - Parnicki died before finishing it[11] - the problem of singularity is especially evident in the story of Iphigenia, or rather in the motif of Iphigenia, because the event is subject to the text.
In the first chapter we are informed of the existence of a dissertation entitled "The Mythical Iphigenia as an Undoubtedly Historical Figure and Probably Identical with the Daughter of the Judge in the Old Testament" [Parnicki 2003a, 33]. The title characterises succinctly what can happen to uniqueness. On the one hand: it is threatened by disappearance in the multiplicity of the world, the loss of singularity in comparison with the other (Iphigenia and the daughter of Jephthah). On the other: it is threatened by being absorbed into culture, by putting the individual to use in the economy of culture, in some interest of sense - the novel mentions the works by Euripides, Racine and Goethe in which the character of Iphigenia is interpreted differently, her individual fate being used to propagate various meanings: psychological, ideological, etc. - from the religious (human sacrifice) to the political (anti-Semitism[12]). Let us pay attention (as it will be of service later) to the fact that various cultures behave at various times in a similar way; what they have in common is disregard for the singularity, the uniqueness of each individual life, even if they use it as an argument - exactly: singularity turns out to be only an exemplum. One of the characters of The Last Novel will write a play about the daughter of Jephthah instead of about Iphigenia; in spite of the sublime intention, it will be a powerless work, because art cannot restore the individual's own name - art destroys it.
Our own singularity and uniqueness are familiar to us, the other's singularity and uniqueness constitute an obstacle, a problem we try to get rid of. The world is too much, there are too many people, events... Other selves are too complex, too complicated; and what is more, dealing with them makes for distance from oneself, why should I care about them? A mental shortcut is needed then - especially in a novel which is a thousand pages long, which features more than a hundred characters, has a time-span of a couple of decades, and action that takes place on almost all continents... (sometimes it seems that Parnicki tests the reader's capacity to absorb an excessive amount of information). To generalise everything apart from one self, to choose only the most necessary data, to cancel multiplicity and uniqueness, is to reach the heart of the matter, the essence; in an aforementioned quotation Derrida rightly calls this attitude "the return to essentiality".
In The Last Novel, the characters often speak (three-quarters of the work consists exclusively of dialogue) about getting to know the essence as the condition of substantial, true knowledge: "The essence, or the gist, of the matter"[13]; "to penetrate [...] to the heart of things, or affairs, or phenomena" [Parnicki 2003a, 335]. However, it soon turns out that the knowledge talked about here is actually unwieldy, it is unable to grasp the multiplicity and diversity of phenomena. If only because phenomena take place in time, and essence would exist beyond time or alongside time, since it is assumed that: "the heart of the matter endures in an immutable state"[14]. This seeming advantage in time is, in fact, a degeneration and reduction: essence is shown to be a mere formula rather than a pattern. Only phenomena are the site of unique alterity, of stories that are always exceptional, they are the only ones that can "say" something else, "provide" different information. Whereas essence is only itself, it is the sterility of the identical (the seeking of it in the multiple), the boredom of speech coming to light especially when the already said has to be reiterated (the speakers in The Last Novel repeatedly resort to the phrase "and so on"[15]).
What speech and essence have in common is generalization, which Parnicki's characters (are they the only ones?) try to escape. Even synecdoche - which is a figure of speech based on the function of a part (pars pro toto) - is too general when applied to life,[16] in which generality does not appear ("'Poles in general' are something I've never encountered" [Parnicki 2003a, 348]). The way in which the concrete and the general are situated in Parnicki's novel repeats, has to repeat, the relationship between an idea and an appearance or thing as perceived by Plato: "[Ideas] are transcendent in relation to things, and at the same time somehow present in them" [Zieliński 1993, 18]. A name is at the same time adequate and inadequate, depending on the degree of similarity to the thing.[17] And although luckily the number of names is limited - so the choice is finite (there is not so much language...) - Parnicki constantly substitutes one word for another, which makes reading him extremely difficult. Hence the hurly-burly of substitutions:
I'm deeply convinced that you would have to become this kind - or such kind - of person. If only for the reason that this sort of balance deserves, or invites, or welcomes - how should I express myself for my expression to be the incontestably correct one? - only a name which is artificial or apparent? [Parnicki 2003a, 94].
Such sentences are almost unreadable, but they also illustrate the fact that we have too few words to express the multiplicity of things or phenomena. In the process of substitution, however, the words maintain their uniqueness and singularity; essence does not absorb them. Things and phenomena remain in their places, indifferent to naming, foreign to language. Parnicki's multiplication of substitute names demonstrates the weakness, the insignificance of speech in the face of the real world. One of his substitutions is most shocking to a Pole: "jaka (or która"[18]; because in Polish która normally implies individuality, whereas jaka refers to type, generality. Parnicki, by making them synonymous, communicates that both words generalise in equal measure, and that neither of them touches on singularity (the lack of meaningful difference[19]). One might have accused Parnicki of linguistic nihilism, if the writer himself had not refuted the accusation in advance, showing how language prepares meaning, imposes it, and how grammar maps in advance the course of events; for instance, by restricting the choices of an object to being an instrument (by using the instrumental case, that is), or by making somebody or something passive (by using the accusative, that is, and the passive voice ) -
[...] spowodowana być musi czymś, lub: przez coś, to znowuż jak kto woli ([...] it must be caused by means of something: through something, or again according to how someone prefers it) [Parnicki 2003a, 398].
The restrictions on the object are brought about neither by intention nor by knowledge but by inflexion.[20] In fact, the only part of speech that one can trust is the pronoun, since it only indicates, it does not express, does not attempt to express. Only the pronoun informs one (like a road sign) that reality stretches beyond a name, a designation, a word.
To lay bare the literariness of the story told is the limit, the fulfilment of Parnicki's realism - one cannot be more realistic than to disclose that literature is only literature. The protagonists of The Last Novel know that they are literary characters, but against all expectations, this knowledge is not ontologically depressing - existence in literature is not worse than existence in reality, in fact it surpasses it (if one takes the matter of permanence, for example, into consideration).[21] When Parnicki's private detective - a certain Wang - complains that he is not a detective of Christie or Poe, his point is that he cannot resort to common knowledge (doxa), use a commonplace or platitude, be a "noble old fart" (like Poirot or Dupin); Wang complains that his writer demands from him that he should oppose common knowledge in order that he might find himself in a place of elementary unknowing, the murky beginnings of thinking, where nothing is certain or justifiable. In Parnicki's writing, a consciousness of language and of literariness coincides, in a strange way, with a tendency of the word to take on reality.[22]
The author of The Last Novel leads us to the end of language and culture not in order to confirm his "own" most frequently used fictional motif: the motif of being a cross-breed. Cross-breeds do not care about national cultures, because nobody knows more than they do about the relative value of cultures (having a father and mother with different origins) and the way they are intermingled, about the contingency of culture - this theme is constantly present in Parnicki's writing, which does not mean that he makes light of the distinctiveness of national cultures. In The Last Novel, it is denied by phrases in various languages as well as by the importance of Russian culture - the culture of the writer's youth: he quotes English and German works in Russian translation, because he became familiar with them in this language. Yet Teodor Parnicki, a Polish writer, but the grandson of a germanised Pole (his father's father) and the son of a Jewess from Kyiv, a deserter from the Russian White Army and an émigré in Mexico, experienced too many cultures not to notice that the impulse to inscribe oneself into culture comes from beyond culture. Let us try to explain this on the basis of The Last Novel.
The ageing Ingrid visits Omega's grave in Cairo every day. We do not know why, but we can surmise that she is sorry she had left Omega and returned to Europe.[23] Does she apologise for not being able to forsake history? - I wonder, because everything that binds them comes from history: starting with the circumstances of their first encounter - Osjan Darnlej, later to become Ingrid's husband, in an astounding way delivered Omega from prison once - until the birth of affection between them, a strange kind of love mingled with politics.[24] Does Ingrid dream of finding refuge from history in history itself? Can there be history without history (Omega without Osjan)? Ingrid most probably experiences the strangeness of idea (love) and appearance, around which we keep circling. We experience it as well when on the contrary - as happens to Ingrid's second husband, general Maciej Jakobsen, a pragmatist and realist - we try to turn appearances into ideas, to make reality into the idea.
Parnicki's writing is so difficult, because (paradoxically) he writes about the lightness of being, the phenomenality of human life, which human beings strive to fix, to sublimate ... to do something with. As if reality itself were something one cannot admit, and singularity turned out to be too difficult. The trouble is that all attempts to anchor oneself in idea are doomed to failure, because human life is persistently adrift. We might also use another apt metaphor: we shall always have to deal with a form of amorphousness, of shapelessness. Life collapses, crumbles, slips away like a fine powder... etc. It spills over the banks of idea.
No matter where from and in which way multiplicity may enter culture - or the human ideo-existential hurly-burly - new sense will not appear of itself from among ready-made ideas, only our uniqueness and singularity can be its source, even if (as Derrida feared) we have nothing to say about it, and even acknowledge it as deaf and mute, and obviously : non-essential. Culture is enriched by what was not culture, speech is supported by what denies it, and no one will search in our place for a discourse that will do justice to our uniqueness, nobody will undertake the effort. And nobody will absolve us from it. This is the way in which the identity of cultural effort - despite the of multiplicity and dissimilarities between cultures - presents itself according to Teodor Parnicki (I suppose), and it is the only way in which we can be different in culture, of inscribing into it our alterity.


Bibliography:

Austin, J. L., 1993, Mówienie i poznawanie. Rozprawy i wykłady filozoficzne, ed. and trans. B. Chwedeńczuk. Warszawa: PWN.
Derrida, J., 1978, Writing and Difference, trans. Alan Bass. London: Routledge.
Foucault, M., 1994, The Order of Things. An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Vintage Books.
Kołakowski, L., 2004, O co nas pytają wielcy filozofowie. Kraków: Znak.
Parnicki, T., 2003a, Ostatnia powieść ¾ Czy remis; Porażka, ale czyja, Warszawa: Noir sur Blanc.
Parnicki, T., 2003b, Ostatnia powieść ¾ Abdykacja; Epilog: Następca, Warszawa: Noir sur Blanc.
Plato, 1963, The Collected Dialogues of Plato, ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Szymutko, S., 2004, Starożytny wiek dziewiętnasty. „Ostatnia powieść" Teodora Parnickiego. „FA-art" nr 3-4, p. 120-123. Katowice.
Szymutko, S., Zrozumieć Parnickiego. Katowice: Gnome Books 1992.
Zieliński, E. I. OFMConv, "G. Reale. Nowa interpretacja myśli Platona" in: Platon. Nowa interpretacja. Materiały z sympozjum KUL 30 listopada ¾ 2 grudnia 1992 r, ed. A. Kijewska and E. I. Zieliński OFMConv. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL, 1993.


Translated into English by Sławomir Masłoń



[1] My ideas here are partly inspired by Leszek I am not going to conceal the fact (I am not so original) that my thoughts on idea and appearance were inspired by professor Kołakowski: "In the dialogue Timaeus [by Plato] the attitude to empirical knowledge is different from in his earlier works, and while in the dialogue Parmenides we find various critical remarks, some of them devastating, on the theory of forms" [Kołakowski 2004, 41].

[2] "Wherefore [the creator] resolved to have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he made this image eternal but moving according to number, while eternity itself rests in unity, and this image we call time." [Plato 1963, 1167].

[3] Eternity "has no becoming," [Plato 1963, 1161].

[4] Let us quote the whole sentence: "The result is that the hearer is perplexed and inclined either to question their existence [the existence of ideas], or to contend that, if they do exist, they must certainly be unknowable by our human nature," [Plato 1963, 929].

[5] TheSuch alienating quality of structure was noticed and shrewdly described by Foucault: „[...] they [ideas - S.S.] have a structure that is, in a way, the dark, concave, inner side of their visibility" [Foucault 1994, 237]. The overcoming of the domination of empirical facts is the crucial point in the history of knowledge: "It will be seen that character is no longer drawn directly from the visible structure, and without any criterion other than its presence or absence; it is based upon the existence of functions essential to the living being, and upon relations of importance that are no longer merely a matter of description." [Foucault 1994, 227-8].

[6] Taken out of the fragment: "Representation is in the process of losing its power to define the mode of being common to things and knowledge. The very being of that which is represented is now going to fall outside representation itself" [Foucault 1994, 240].

[7] "A strangely literal, though inverted, application of the advice given, so it is said, to his pupil by the old Pachero [sic] when the former was working in his studio in Seville: 'The image should stand out from the frame' [Foucault 1994, 8].

[8] Later, on the same page, Derrida adds: "Thus the unique is hailed in vain; it is indeed the very element which disappears from this commentary. And not by chance."

[9] The English translation reverses the meaning: "Discourse dissipates the murmur, but without it it could not speak." [ Foucault 1994, 120].

[10] TheA nice final sentence of Derrida's text on Artaud reads as follows: "A question which is still and always enveloped each time that speech, protected by the limits of a field, lets itself be provoked from afar by the enigma of flesh which wanted properly to be named Antonin Artaud" [Derrida 1978, 194-5].

[11] TIt is the reason why the publisher called it thusgave it this title.

[12] See especially the story in which a Jewish female captive is killed instead of Iphigenia.

[13] The phrase, repeated many times afterwards, is used for the first time on page 17 [Parnicki 2003a, 17 obviously].

[14] Another formula used repeatedly: „My recent remark, marginal as it is, doesn't change the heart, that is, the essence of the matter" [Parnicki 2003a, 67].

[15] One of many examples: "[...] 'satisfaction ... and so on'".

[16] When a part is generalised, the whole turns into such a generalizsation so that it is hardly possible to notice anything concrete in it. Sometimes this is precisely the point: "How can you prove that Darnlej's death was caused by the Polish uprising? Obviously, I'm using a metaphor here, that is, to put it differently, a reversal of the rhetorical figure (it is a correct name, I suppose,?) which is called, if my memory serves me correctlyif my memory doesn't fail me, PARS PRO TOTO" [Parnicki 2003a, 29].

[17] Plato himself says: "Also, that things which come to partake of likeness come to be alike in that respect and just in so far as they do come to partake of it, and those that come to partake of unlikeness come to be unlike, while those which come to partake of both come to be both" [Plato 1963, 923].

[18] My example is taken from page 149 [Parnicki 2003a, 149], but the same expression can be found in many other places. This difference can not be rendered in English : both jaka and która can be translated as "which," "who," or "that" - depending on the context.

[19] Hence the consequencesderivatives of ignoring singularity, for instance on the previous page: "[...] by this or such man" [Parnicki 2003a, 148). Attempts at resistance are futile, become hysterical: "But no! Only ta, not taka. One has to finally learn to differentiate between words - or, to be more precise: between pronouns - so extraordinarily close to each other in meaning, without being the same, however." (ibid.) Ta and taka are the Polish feminine singular forms of "this" and "such."

[20] „I guess we were both taught that this verb [wyjaśniać/to explain] probably always takes the object in the third case [i.e. accusative case], regardless of the object in the fourth case [i.e. dative]" [Parnicki 2003a, 310].

[21] I discuss this at length in: Szymutko 2004, 120-123.

[22] See also my earlier work: Szymutko 1992.

[23] This is hinted at in Shaw's letter to Ingrid: "[...] You visit his grave every day in order (as Imo claims) to implore him" [Parnicki 2003 b, 549 ( Parnicki's italics)].

[24] Omega, a Polish independence fighter, actually blackmails Ingridpractically blackmailed Ingrid, see: Parnicki 2003 a, 323-324].
[From: Korek. J. (edit.) From Sovietology to Postcoloniality. Poland and
Ukraine in the Postcolonial Perspective, Södertörn Academic Studies 32,
Stockholm, 2007, ss. 129-137]
 

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...

Alexander Etkind: "Internal Colonization. Russia's Imperial Experience", by Madina Tlostanowa

Read more...

Neil Lazarus: The Postcolonial Unconscious", by Blanka Grzegorczyk

Read more...

Katarzyna Marciniak and Kamil Turowski: "Streets of Crocodiles: Photography, Media, and Postsocialist Landscapes in Poland", by Magdalena Kania Lundholm

Read more...

Sandra Ponzanesi and Bolette B. Blaagaard (Ed.): “Deconstructing Europe. Postcolonial Perspectives”, by Paulina Gąsior

Read more...

Gjoko Muratovski: The use of built environments in the formation and change of national identities: the case of Macedonia and ‘Skopje 2014’

Read more...